Interior of Fort Jacskon
The log guardhouse near the
gate of Fort Jackson has
been restored.
Walls of Fort Jackson
The massive earth walls of
the fort featured sharpened
logs to make it more secure
against Creek attack.
Fort Jackson at Fort Toulouse/Jackson- Wetumpka, Alabama - Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson, Alabama - Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson, Alabama
Fort Jackson, Alabama
Spring flowers frame the gate and walls of historic
Fort Jackson. Located near Wetumpka, the fort is
one of the most historic sites in the United States.
Culmination of the Creek War
The last of a series of forts built on the point
of land formed by the confluence of the
Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, historic Fort
Jackson was the scene of some of the most
significant events in American history.

Built at the site of
Fort Toulouse, actually a
series of Colonial stockades erected by the
French, Fort Jackson was established in
April of 1814 by Major General Andrew
Jackson of Tennessee. It was named in his
honor and was the site of the culmination of
Creek War of 1813-1814.

Jackson had just defeated the Red Stick
faction of the Creek Nation at the
Battle of
Horseshoe Bend. With the surviving Creek
warriors retreating before him, he moved his
army into the traditional and ceremonial heart
of the Creek Nation and took up a position at
the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa.

There his engineers staked out Fort Jackson,
a massive rectangular fort with bastions
projecting from each corner. Because the
danger of renewed combat if the Creeks
could reorganize was very real, the fort was
one of the strongest erected during the war.
Not only did the pointed bastions provide
positions from which soldiers could sweep
the exterior walls with musket fire, the walls
of the fort were thick earthworks backed with
logs. Sharpened logs projected from the front
of the walls to make them even harder to

As Fort Jackson was being constructed,
Jackson sent out messengers to the Red
Stick Creek leaders telling them to surrender
or face his wrath. Many turned themselves in,
although some - Peter McQueen is a prime
example - were not recognized and soon
walked away from the fort.

Perhaps the most famous surrender of a
Creek leader to take place at Fort Jackson
was that of William Weatherford. One of the
principal leaders in the attack on
Fort Mims,
Weatherford was also called Red Eagle by
later writers, although there is no indication
he used that title at the time of the Creek War.

Not recognized by the sentries guarding
Jackson's quarters, Weatherford walked up
to Jackson himself and announced his
presence. Although there are several
accounts of Weatherford's surrender, the
most authentic was probably that written by
Major John Reid. An eyewitness to the scene,
Reid said Weatherford spoke to Jackson in
these words:
I am in your power - do with me as you
please. I am a soldier. I have done the white
people all the harm I could; I have fought
them, and fought them bravely: if I had an
army, I would yet fight, and contend to the
last: but I have none; my people are all gone.
I can now do no more than weep over the
misfortunes of my nation.

Jackson spared Weatherford's life and
assigned guards to protect him from his
army's outraged frontiersmen, many of whom
had lost friends or family at Fort Mims.

The general did, however, exact the Treaty of
Fort Jackson on the Creek Nation during the
following summer. The treaty forced the
Creeks to surrender much of the modern
states of Alabama and Georgia to the United
States as payment for the costs of the Creek
War. The penalty was exacted on all of the
Creeks, even though many had sided with
the U.S. and assisted in the defeat of the Red

Now a part of
Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson
Historic Site, Fort Jackson has been partially
restored. The park is located at the end of
Fort Toulouse Road off U.S. Highway 231 in
Wetumpka, Alabama. The park is open daily.
Moat of Fort Jackson
Although the fort is partially
restored, its total outline is
visible in the form of its moat.
Fort Toulouse, Alabama
Fort Jackson was built at the
site of earlier French forts of
the Colonial Era.
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Copyright 2011 by Dale Cox
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